MacDermid Enthone’s Photovoltaics Solutions business provides metallization chemistry for plating conductors on silicon cells.  Our HELIOS product portfolio is integrated with laser ablation & plating equipment.  The Plating on Silicon (PoSi) process includes: 1) pre-treatment, 2) nickel contact 0.5µm, 3) copper conductor 6µm, and 4) silver protection 0.1µm.  By eliminating front grid silver paste, HELIOS reduces conductor costs by 70% and reduces conductor light shadowing by 50%.  This lowest cost, highest efficiency technology achieves adhesion better than that of screen printed paste.  Production modules exceed IEC 61215 specifications.  The investment ROI is less than 18 months.  Paste is in the Past.  HELIOS PoSi is ready today for standard p-type designs, as well as HIT, IBC, PERC, and all n-type constructions.